The Haven-Finding Art: The History of Navigation from Odysseus to Captain Cook

E.G.R. Taylor

published by Hollis & Carter, London 1956

Table of Contents:

Part I:  Introduction

             1. Signs in the Sky – open-sea voyages – direction by sun and star – direction by winds – home-blowing winds

             2. The Surface and Floor of the Sea tide and tide-rips – ocean currents and the gulf stream – fogs and fish – sea-floor patterns – danger and safety in-shore

Part II:  Navigation without Magnetic Compass or Chart

              3.  The Phoenicians and the Greeksin soundings – Red Sea sailings – Odysseus and the Phaecians – Pythea of Marseilles – port-books and pilot-books – the ancient wind-rose -sailing the Indian Ocean – sea-marks.

              4. The Irish and the Norseman monks and anchorites – voyages to Iceland -shore-sighting birds – voyage to Greenland – The  King’s Mirror – Octhere and King Alfred.

Part III:  With Compass and Chart

               5. In the Mediterranean Sea lodestone and compass – the new wind-rose – Compasso da Navigare Carta Pisana – Catalan Chart-makers – The Toleta de Marteloio.

               6. In the Eastern and Western Oceans – Marco Polo – Arab navigators – star altitudes – an English Rutter – navigation by lead and line – tides and tide-tables – three medieval voyages.

Part IV: Instruments and Tables

               7. The Portuguese Pioneers – Greek geography recovered – Prince Henry the Navigator – sailing by altura – taking the sun – the oldest navigating manual – Pierre Garcia’s Rutter.

               8. The Errors of Compass and Plain Chart – variation of the compass – Dr. Nunez and the true rhumb – John de Castro and deviation – John Rotz and the chart – Martin Cortes’ manual.

               9. The English Awakening –foreign pilots in England – Richard Chancellor and John Dee – Stephen and William Borough – Bourne’s Regiment of the Sea – Robert Norman the compass-maker – the ‘Waggoner.’

Part V: Towards Mathematical Navigation

               10. The True Chart – Thomas Hariot and Edward Wright – the Table of meridianal parts mid-latitude sailing – re-knotting the log-line – the learned societies – re-measuring the degree – Edmund Halley’s charts – astronomical and nautical tables.

               11. The Longitude Solved – the Greenwich and Paris observatories – the mathematical sailor – a Commission for the longitude – the Rouille prizes – Hadley’s sextant – the perfect timepiece – Sully and Le Roy – John Harrison – triumph of the chronometer.

Appendix – Navigation in Medieval China

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